The flora and fauna assemblages of the Fleurieu Peninsula Swamps are home to many species that are not found elsewhere in Australia such as the MLR Southern Emu-wren (Stipiturus malachurus intermedius).
Fleurieu Peninsula Swamp communities contain at least 204 native plant species of which 167 are indigenous, meaning they only occur in the Swamps. Fifty percent of the indigenous plant species recorded in the Swamps (84 species) have state conservation significance and fifty-seven percent (96 species) have regional conservation status. Four threatened plant species have national significance:
- Fleurieu Leek-orchid (Prasophyllum murfetii),
- Fleurieu Guinea-flower (Hibbertia tenuis),
- Mount Compass Swamp Gum (Eucalyptus paludicola),
- Osborns Eyebright (Euphrasia collina ssp. osbornii).
The presence of these threatened species within an already critically endangered ecosystem brings additional responsibility for protection and improvement.
Lathams Snipe (Gallinago hardwickii) - EPBC Act,
Lewin's Rail (Rallus pectoralis) - EPBC Act,
Mount Lofty Ranges Southern Emu-wren (Stipiturus malachurus intermedius) - EPBC Act,
Southern Brown Bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus obesulus) - EPBC Act, E
Yarra Pygmy Perch (Nannoperca obscura) - EPBC Act, and
Freshwater Hardy Head (Craterocephalus fluviatilis)
|Animals of Regional conservation significance include;
Male Bibron's Toadlet sitting on its eggs (Tom Hands)